Today, fertilization is replaced by soil fertility. Indeed, the objective is no longer only to feed the plants. In 2020, fertilization products must also stimulate and nourish soils to meet several challenges: depollution and environmental balance, increase yields, and improve the nutrient content of food products. Discover 5 tips to improve the fertility of your soil by increasing organic matter.
1/ Reduce tillage and optimize input use
By reducing tillage, the structure of the soil is conducive to the development of biological activity. By resting, the soil favors interactions between micro-organisms and other organic matter that compose it. The stronger these interactions are, the more fertile the soil is, which makes it possible to optimize the use of inputs only when necessary.
2/ Installing vegetation cover
Plant cover has the advantage of protecting and enriching the soil. By developing a strong biological activity on the surface, it generates humus and other structuring colloids, able to agglutinate aggregates such as root exudates, earthworm mucus, fungus mycelia or glomalin. The vegetation cover thus enriches the concentrations of organic matter.
3/ Conserve crop residues as much as possible
Crop residues are the above-ground parts of unharvested plants. They have the advantage of containing a significant amount of organic matter, generally higher than that of the harvested products. They can be used in several ways, notably by remaining on the soil to stimulate its fertility by feeding the populations of fungi, earthworms and other bacteria.
4/ Use legumes
Legumes have an important impact on soil fertility because they have the ability to fix nitrogen from the air in the root nodules of the plant. Opting for the use of legumes in the crop rotation allows the soil to be naturally enriched in nitrogen, an essential element to feed bacteria and other living elements in the soil. According to the Arvalis information site, 100 million tons of atmospheric nitrogen are fixed by legumes annually.
5/ Passing from “fertilization plan” to soil fertility management via eco-fertilization
Planning fertilization is relative in an agricultural system where fertilization is synonymous with soil fertility. And for good reason: some of the work is done naturally and therefore does not need to be planned. Eco-fertilization allows to reinforce and optimize this natural improvement of soil fertility.