Means of control against diseases and pests

against diseases and pests Pests and diseases of plants.


Prevention above all
A well-organized vegetable garden that respects the needs of the plants will be healthier and more resistant than a garden where the plants must already fight to survive.
than a garden where the plants have to fight to survive.


Therefore, pay attention to :

  • sunlight and shady areas ;
  • the type of soil (a plant from a dry and sunny environment will not be happy in a shady area and in
    clayey, humid soil);
  • the maintenance of fertility over time (some greedy plants, such as squash and cabbage, do not grow as well as
    (some greedy plants, like squash and cabbage, do not develop well if the soil is not rich enough, and conversely other plants
    like garlic, shallots and onions do not appreciate an excess of organic matter);
  • to the neighborhood (some plants strengthen each other, these are positive associations, and others
    and others become deformed, which are negative associations).

  • Attracting beneficials
    To limit pests, there is nothing like having their predators around the garden. You can
    attract them by installing host plants, shelters or by creating suitable environments.
    Let’s think about installing, depending on the space available
  • nesting boxes and shelters for insects
  • birdhouses
  • piles of wood for hedgehogs
  • a pond for amphibians
  • food plants
  • Some means of mechanical control
    To avoid the development of weeds and, at the same time, the evaporation of water:
    use of tarpaulins on the ground, mulch
    To avoid attack by birds :
    placement of nets around the berries, over the seedlings,
    reflective objects (CDs or metal strips hung in the fruit trees,
    installation of objects that make noise with the wind (bottles overturned on a stake)
    To avoid slug attacks:
    ring of sawdust or ashes around the plant
    placing bottles with their bottoms removed above the seedlings

Against tomato blight:


placing a roof over the tomato plants.
To avoid frost attacks in early spring or fall or by insects:
Placement of protective sails


Chemical control


Whether it is by modifying the environmental conditions, or by directly attacking the organism that causes the problem (pest, pathogen, etc.)
problem (pest, pathogen), certain chemical substances that are completely harmless to the environment can
the environment can bring an appreciable help:

  • Insecticide solution with black soap: effective in particular against aphids.
  • Baking soda solution: effective against tomato or potato mildew
    2.5 g of baking soda + 1 tsp of biodegradable liquid soap in 1l of water
    Without being ideal, the use of certain chemical products authorized in organic culture can bring
    help in crisis situations (ferramol granules against slugs and snails).
    However, it is often more appropriate to wait for some time, and often the invader will be controlled
    naturally by the arrival of predators.

  • Useful plants to grow in association :

    Some plants grown in or near the vegetable garden/garden have a beneficial influence
  • alliaceae
    + effective against cryptogamic diseases and to keep insects and nematodes away
    – negative effect on the growth of tomatoes and potatoes
    use: plant at the foot of fruit trees, small fruits
  • horseradish
    + effective against cryptogamic diseases of many fruit trees, and to fight against the attacks of aphids
    of aphids on beans
    – negative effect on the growth of cucumber, strong root development making it difficult to install in the vegetable garden
    in the vegetable garden
    use: plant under fruit trees (cherry trees, peach trees…)
  • wormwood and other wormwoods:
    + effective against flea beetles, cabbageworm, currant rust
    – negative effect on the growth of many other plants
    use : plant a plant in a corner of the garden, at least 1m from the vegetable garden and spread fresh leaves
    between crops that need it in the garden
  • tansy
    + repellent to many insects (aphids, flies, whiteflies…) and host plant for many beneficials
    – strong root development
    use: plant near the vegetable garden, spread leaves and flowering tops in strategic places
  • calendula (calendula)
    + nematicide and host plant for many beneficials (lacewings, ladybugs…), favorable,
    – negative effect on the growth of many other plants (fennel, garlic, lettuce)
    use: use in borders or in association with beans, potatoes, strawberries and tomatoes
  • marigold or Nemagon tagetes (Tagetes patula)
    + nematicide and repellent to many insects, host plant for many beneficials

use: plant in association with tomatoes, eggplants, strawberries, head cabbage and cauliflower

Plant preparations to treat plants

The different types of preparations :

  • Infusions:
    25 g of dry plants or 250 g of fresh plants in 1 l of cold water
    heating up to 80°C to extract the acids conservation :/
    heat up to 90°C to extract the other substances conservation: if 5 mg vit C/l
    filter
    dilute to 5%.
  • Decoctions:
    25 g of dry plants or 250 g of fresh plants in 1 l of cold water
    let macerate for a few hours
    bring to a boil for 20 minutes
    filter
    dilute to 5% conservation: 2-3 days
  • Purins or fermented extracts:
    1 kg of fresh plants in 10 l of cold water
    stir every day for 5 to 10 days, as long as there are bubbles of fermentation
    filter
    dilute to 5% conservation: 1 month in a dark and airtight place
    1 year if 100ml of whey is added during fermentation
    1 pinch of rock powder during maceration helps to reduce odors
  • The macerations:
    1 kg of fresh plants in 10 l of cold water
    let macerate for 2-3 days
    filter

The different types of action:
Preventive: stimulant, repellent
Curative: fungicide, insecticide…
Some plants used :
Horsetail
Infusion at 80°:
-Insect repellent
Decoction:

  • Strengthens the defense system of plants
  • Fungicide
    1. pulverization especially the ground in spring, with the restarting of the vegetation;
    1. spray on seedlings in the nursery or garden;
    1. spray on small plants before transplanting and after transplanting as soon as the sign of recovery appears.
    Nettle (before flowering)
    Infusion at 80° (extraction of formic, gallic and histaminic acids)
    -Acaricide (dry leaves)
  • Biostimulant (fresh leaves)
    Infusion at 90
  • Fungicide against 85% of pathogenic fungi (roots picked in autumn: 250 g in 5 l of water, diluted at
    10%)
    Young manure (24h-48h)
    -Insecticide
    Fully fermented manure (5-10 days):
  • Watered into the soil, diluted to 5%:
    • Stimulates leaf growth,
    • Stimulates the defense system of plants (complementary to horsetail)
    • Stimulates soil life.
  • Sprayed on the leaves, diluted at 2%:
    • Stimulates the plant’s defense system

Comfrey (leaves before flowering)
Purin

  • Watering the soil, diluted at 5%.
    • Promotes flowering and fruiting (potash contribution);
      -Nourishes the soil fauna (very useful to decompose the RCW);
    • Stimulates the plants’ defense system (against soil toxins or toxic products);
    • Stimulates the plant’s defense system (against soil toxins or toxic products); Allows the use of copper substances to be reduced by 30%.
      Burdock (leaves before flowering)
      Purin
  • Watering the soil, diluted at 5%.
    • Fights against water stress in plants;
      -Excellent preventive against mildew (especially in the case of potatoes), in association with nettle and comfrey fermented extracts.
      and comfrey.
      Rhubarb (leaves before flowering)
      -Insecticide
      Maceration
      500g of rhubarb leaves in 3 l of rainwater
      Let soak for 48 hours
      Filter
  • Spray pure
    Infusion (more efficient)
    200g of rhubarb leaves in 3 l of boiling water
    Bring back to a boil
    Remove from heat, cover and let cool
    Filter and add 1 tbsp of black soap
  • Spray pure on fruit trees and others.
    Tansy
    Decoction
    300 to 400 grams of coarsely chopped leaves, stems and fresh flowers in 1 liter of cold water.
    Leave to marinate covered for 24 hours.
    Boil covered for about 15 minutes.
    Let cool completely before filtering.
  • Spray, pure
    • Controls aphids, flea beetles, cabbage maggots, cabbage flies…;
    • Renew every 3-4 days in case of massive invasion

Garlic


Maceration
Macerate 2 cloves of garlic cut into small pieces for 24 hours in 1l of water then filter.

  • To be used pure as a foliar spray -Antifungal and bactericidal action
    • Fight against mites, aphids and grey rot
      Black elderberry
      Purin
    • Used pure as in the galleries
      -Repellent action against moles and voles

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